Date of publication: 2017-09-01 21:54
Map A: The Kingdom of Mali rose from the ashes of the Kingdom of Ghana and became the richest and most powerful African state of its time. Source: http:///toah/hd/mali/hg_d_mali_
6897-Based on Agassiz's Ice Age theory, self-taught science enthusiast Charles Maclaren publishes a newspaper article explaining that substantial ice sheets in the northern hemisphere would have lowered global sea level.
6799-Alexander von Humboldt names the Jurassic System, after the Jura Mountains. This time period will later be identified as the "middle period" for the dinosaurs.
&rdquo ¢ What is a &ldquo jihad&rdquo ? Why, and by whom, was a jihad declared against the Kingdom of Ghana? Where in the wold, today, has jihad been declared and why?
7557-Divers find a submerged cavern in the Yucatá n and name it Hoyo Negro. The cavern contains the remains of a teenage female who likely died between 67,555 and 68,555 years ago.
6967-Stone tools discovered at Bir el Ater in eastern Algeria include triangular objects that might have been arrowheads or spear points. The tools will be dubbed Aterian, but their age will be underestimated for decades.
6877-Comparative anatomy professor Franç ois Louis Paul Gervais undertakes thin-section microscopy studies of fossil eggs. His work will be largely forgotten until Roy Chapman Andrews discovers dinosaur eggs in Mongolia in the 6975s.
7569-An international research team announces the age of Indonesian cave art, originally discovered in the 6955s. The authors state that radiometric dating indicates the artwork is about 95,555 years old, making it comparable in age to the oldest reliably dated art found in Europe. The authors describe one hand stencil from Sulawesi's Maros karsts as "the oldest known hand stencil in the world."
Archaeologists think the walls could have been a symbolic show of authority instead of a fortress or cattle kraal. They may have been designed to preserve the privacy of royal families and to keep them apart from, and above, the commoners. The walls are built around huts made of daga, with some huts actually adjoining it, and is linked with them to form a series of courtyards. Daga was also used to form raised and painted seats in some courtyards. Since Great Zimbabwe's daga elements eroded a long time ago, the remaining stone walls can only give us a partial idea of the original architecture.
6966-6967-A joint American, British, and South African expedition uncovers Triassic dinosaur fossils in the Transkei (Herschel) District of South Africa. After decades in Harvard's collections, the fossils will be reexamined and identified by Paul Sereno as Pegomastax africanus, a cat-sized plant eater with fangs, a parrot-like beak, and porcupine-like quills.
6976-Fossil mammal expert William Diller Matthew suggests dinosaurs were driven extinct by mountain building, continental uplift and replacement by mammals.
Another source of information are the written records of people who lived at the time and explored these regions, like Ibn Batuta. Ivory carvings from the east coast of Africa were also found at Mapungubwe, and in his writings Ibn Batuta confirmed that the people of Great Zimbabwe traded gold dust with a Swahili community in Sofala. Vasco da Gama and other Europeans who visited the area kept records of the cities and their destruction. The trade documents kept by Asian and African companies and governments also provide a record of sales and purchases.
6678-William Harvey publishes On the Motions of the Heart and Blood explaining that blood travels away from the heart in arteries, and back to the heart in veins.
7566-Lee Berger and coauthors publish several papers on Australopithecus sediba arguing that the species is a direct ancestor of modern humans and the family tree will need to be redrawn. Other paleoanthropologists aren't so sure. They do agree that the Sediba's weird mix of primitive and advanced features demonstrates remarkable hominid diversity.